Table of Contents


This edition of the Wydawca Manual, last updated 6 January 2021, documents Wydawca Version 4.0.3.

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1 Introduction to Wydawca

Let’s begin with a short synopsis. Suppose you run a developer’s site, such as e.g. ‘gnu.org’. You have two distribution URLs: ‘ftp.gnu.org’, which distributes stable versions of the software, and ‘alpha.gnu.org’, which distributes alpha and pre-test versions. Package maintainers need a way of uploading their packages to one of these sites. This is done using the Automated FTP Upload method described in Automated Upload Procedure. The following is a short summary of it: there is an FTP upload site, which has two source directories, each one corresponding to a certain distribution URL. For example,

Source DirectoryDistribution Site

If maintainer of the project ‘foo’ wishes to make a release of the stable version foo-1.0.tar.gz, he first creates a detached signature foo-1.0.tar.gz.sig. Then he creates a special directive file, which contains information about where the distributed tarball must be placed, and clear-signs it using his PGP key, thus obtaining the file foo-1.0.tar.gz.directive.asc. Finally, he uploads these three files (a triplet) to the upload site, storing them into the directory /incoming/ftp.

From now on, it is the responsibility of a release submission daemon to scan source directories, gather triplets, verify them, and to move any files that had successfully passed verification to their distribution sites.

Wydawca is such a release submission daemon. It is able to handle any number of ‘source/destination’ pairs (called spools) in real time, and offers extensible logging and notification mechanisms, allowing both package maintainers and site administrators to be immediately notified about any occurring problems.

Wydawca supports upload directive versions 1.11 and 1.22.

The program is written entirely in C, is highly effective and consumes little resources.

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2 Operation Overview

Usually, wydawca is installed on the machine that receives release uploads. It may be run either periodically as a cron-job, or as a standalone daemon. It supposes that both upload and distribution directories are accessible in the local file system hierarchy. If that is not the case (e.g. if upload and distribution sites are handled by different machines), one of them should be mounted using NFS. Future versions will contain special provisions for that case.

A configuration file defines a set of spools, i.e. pairs of upload and corresponding distribution directories. In wydawca terminology, upload directories are also called source, and distribution directories – destination directories. The configuration file supplies also the information necessary to access user and project databases.

When started, wydawca scans each source directory and prepares a list of files found there. Then, it compacts this list by looking for directive files and re-arranging list members in triplets. A directive file is a special file that must be supplied with each upload and contains instructions regarding the placement of the uploaded files. A triplet is a standard entity, consisting of three files: a clear-signed directive file, a file to be distributed, and a detached signature of the latter. In some special cases, a clear-signed directive file alone is valid. This happens when it contains only standalone directives3.

Each incomplete triplet, i.e. a triplet missing one or more necessary files, is then verified by checking if the modification date of its oldest file is older than a predefined amount of time (see file-sweep-time). If so, the triplet is considered expired, and all its files are removed. This gives users the possibility to restart interrupted or otherwise broken uploads later.

After completing these preliminary stages, wydawca analyzes the directive file and extracts the project name from it. Using this name as a key, it searches in the project dictionary for a list of users authorized to make uploads for this project. This list contains user names and their corresponding public PGP keys. Wydawca tries to verify the directive file using each PGP key from this list, until a matching key is found, or the list in exhausted. In the latter case, the triplet is rejected. Otherwise, the key and its owner are remembered for the next step.

In this step, the uploaded file and its detached signature are verified. If they do not match the public key obtained in the previous step, the triplet is rejected.

Finally, directives from the directive file are executed. On this stage of the processing, the uploaded files are actually moved to their destination directories, requested symbolic links are created, etc.

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2.1 Operation Modes

The program has two operation modes: ‘cron mode’ and ‘daemon mode’.

In cron mode, wydawca runs in foreground and exits when it is done with processing all required spools. By default it processes all configured spools, unless a subset of them is specified in the command line. This is called cron mode, because this is the usual way for wydawca to be used as a cron job.

In daemon mode, wydawca detaches itself from the controlling terminal and runs in the background. It watches for the incoming uploads using one or both of the following methods.

On modern GNU/Linux systems wydawca uses inotify API (see monitoring file system events in inotify man page), which enables it to react on each upload immediately after a complete triplet is uploaded and to clean up unfinished or incomplete uploads. This is a preferred mode of operation.

On other systems, the daemon can be configured to listen on a socket for upload notifications. This method can also be used together with inotify, should the need be. This feature uses the TCPMUX protocol4 and operates as follows:

After establishing connection, the remote party (the client) sends the spool tag followed by a CRLF pair. The server scans its configuration for a spool that has the requested ID. If no such spool is found, the server replies with the string ‘- Unknown service name’, followed by a CRLF pair and closes the connection.

If a matching spool is found, the server replies with ‘+’ acknowledgment, immediately followed by an optional message of explanation, and terminated with a CRLF. Upon receiving this acknowledgment, the client sends the login name of the user who did the upload5. The following sample transaction illustrates this:

C: stable
S: +OK. URL ftp://ftp.domain.net
C: smith

When the user name is received, the server schedules a job for processing all triplets in the given spool.

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3 How to invoke wydawca.

Wydawca gets all information it needs from its configuration file (see wydawca.conf). The default configuration file is sysconfdir/wydawca.conf, but if it is located elsewhere, you can specify its new location with the --config-file (-c) command line option.

If you wish to check your configuration file for syntax errors, use --lint (-t) command line option. When given this option, wydawca prints all diagnostics on its standard error and exits with code 0 if the file is OK, or 1 otherwise.

Normally, wydawca attempts to detect automatically whether it is run from an interactive console, and if so it prints its diagnostics on the standard error. Otherwise, the diagnostics is directed to the syslog, using the facility given in the syslog-facility configuration file statement (see syslog). Two options are provided if you wish to disable this autodetection: the option --syslog instructs the program to print all diagnostics via syslog, and the option --stderr (or -e) instructs it to print everything on the standard error.

The operation mode can be configured in the configuration file or in the command line. Command line options take precedence over configuration settings. The cron mode is the default. It can also be requested explicitly, using the --cron command line option.

Similarly, the --daemon option enables daemon mode.

Usually wydawca attempts to process all the configured spools. You can instruct it to process only a subset of these by using the following options:

-S tag

Process only spool with the given tag.

-s dir

Process only spool with dir as the source directory.

Any number of these options may be supplied, e.g.:

$ wydawca --spool=ftp --spool=test --source=/home/ftp/test-upload

The --debug (-d) option tells the program to set its debugging level to the given integer value. Debugging level determines the amount of information the program reports when it runs. Default level is 0, which means that only errors and other critical conditions are reported. Raising it may be necessary when debugging new configurations. ‘Wydawca’ version 4.0.3 implements 4 distinct debugging levels.

Yet another debugging facility is the --dry-run (-n) option. It instructs wydawca to avoid doing any modifications to the disk contents, and to print a verbose description of any actions it would have taken. It sets the debugging level to 1 and directs the diagnostics output to the standard error, as if --debug=1 --stderr options were given. You can further control the debugging level by supplying additional --debug options after the --dry-run option.

The --dry-run option is useful when testing new configurations, for example:

$ wydawca -c new.cfg --dry-run

In addition, the two usual informational options are available as well: --help (-h) prints a short usage summary, and --version (-v) prints program version number.

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4 How to Configure wydawca.

Upon startup, wydawca reads its settings from the configuration file wydawca.conf. By default it is located in $sysconfidr (i.e., in most cases /usr/local/etc, or /etc), but an alternative location may be specified using --config-file command line option (see config-file).

If any errors are encountered in the configuration file, the program reports them on its error output and exits with a non-zero status.

To test the configuration file without starting the server use --lint (-t) command line option. It causes wydawca to check configuration file for syntax errors and other inconsistencies. If no errors were detected, the program exits with code 0. Otherwise, the exit code is 78.

Using this option together with -d1 (--debug=1), causes wydawca to produce a dump of the configuration parse tree. Setting a higher debugging level (e.g. -d2 option) will additionally prefix each statement in the dump with the file location where it appeared.

Before parsing, configuration file is preprocessed using m4 (see Preprocessor). To see the preprocessed configuration without actually parsing it, use the -E command line option. To avoid preprocessing it, use --no-preprocessor option.

The rest of this section describes the configuration file syntax in detail. You can receive a concise summary of all configuration directives any time by running wydawca --config-help.

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4.1 Configuration file syntax

Wydawca configuration file consists of statements and comments.

There are three classes of lexical tokens: keywords, values, and separators. Blanks, tabs, newlines and comments, collectively called white space are ignored except as they serve to separate tokens. Some white space is required to separate otherwise adjacent keywords and values.

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Comments may appear anywhere where white space may appear in the configuration file. There are two kinds of comments: single-line and multi-line comments. Single-line comments start with ‘#’ or ‘//’ and continue to the end of the line:

# This is a comment
// This too is a comment

Multi-line or C-style comments start with the two characters ‘/*’ (slash, star) and continue until the first occurrence of ‘*/’ (star, slash).

Multi-line comments cannot be nested. However, single-line comments may well appear within multi-line ones.

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4.1.2 Pragmatic Comments

Pragmatic comments are similar to usual single-line comments, except that they cause some changes in the way the configuration is parsed. Pragmatic comments begin with a ‘#’ sign and end with the next physical newline character. Wydawca version 4.0.3, understands the following pragmatic comments:

#include <file>
#include file

Include the contents of the file file. If file is an absolute file name, both forms are equivalent. Otherwise, the form with angle brackets searches for the file in the include search path, while the second one looks for it in the current working directory first, and, if not found there, in the include search path.

The default include search path is:

  1. prefix/share/wydawca/include
  2. prefix/share/wydawca/4.0.3/include

where prefix is the installation prefix.

New directories can be appended in front of it using -I (--include-directory) command line option (see include-directory).

#include_once <file>
#include_once file

Same as #include, except that, if the file has already been included, it will not be included again.

#line num
#line num "file"

This line causes wydawca to believe, for purposes of error diagnostics, that the line number of the next source line is given by num and the current input file is named by file. If the latter is absent, the remembered file name does not change.

# num "file"

This is a special form of #line statement, understood for compatibility with the C preprocessor.

In fact, these statements provide a rudimentary preprocessing features. For more sophisticated ways to modify configuration before parsing, see Preprocessor.

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4.1.3 Statements

A simple statement consists of a keyword and value separated by any amount of whitespace. Simple statement is terminated with a semicolon (‘;’).

Examples of simple statements:

daemon yes;
pidfile /var/run/wydawca.pid;

A keyword begins with a letter and may contain letters, decimal digits, underscores (‘_’) and dashes (‘-’). Examples of keywords are: ‘group’, ‘file-sweep-time’.

A value can be one of the following:


A number is a sequence of decimal digits.


A boolean value is one of the following: ‘yes’, ‘true’, ‘t’ or ‘1’, meaning true, and ‘no’, ‘false’, ‘nil’, ‘0’ meaning false.

unquoted string

An unquoted string may contain letters, digits, and any of the following characters: ‘_’, ‘-’, ‘.’, ‘/’, ‘@’, ‘*’, ‘:’.

quoted string

A quoted string is any sequence of characters enclosed in double-quotes (‘"’). A backslash appearing within a quoted string introduces an escape sequence, which is replaced with a single character according to the following rules:

SequenceReplaced with
\aAudible bell character (ASCII 7)
\bBackspace character (ASCII 8)
\fForm-feed character (ASCII 12)
\nNewline character (ASCII 10)
\rCarriage return character (ASCII 13)
\tHorizontal tabulation character (ASCII 9)
\vVertical tabulation character (ASCII 11)
\\A single backslash (‘\’)
\"A double-quote.

Table 4.1: Backslash escapes

In addition, the sequence ‘\newline’ is removed from the string. This allows to split long strings over several physical lines, e.g.:

"a long string may be\
 split over several lines"

If the character following a backslash is not one of those specified above, the backslash is ignored and a warning is issued.

Two or more adjacent quoted strings are concatenated, which gives another way to split long strings over several lines to improve readability. The following fragment produces the same result as the example above:

"a long string may be"
" split over several lines"

Depending on the context, the quoted string may be subject to variable expansion.

During variable expansion, references to variables in the string are replaced with their actual values. A variable reference has two basic forms:


where v is the variable name. The notation in curly braces serves several purposes. First, it should be used if the variable reference is immediately followed by an alphanumeric symbol, which will otherwise be considered part of it (as in ‘${home}dir’). Secondly, this form allows for specifying the action to take if the variable is undefined or expands to an empty value.

The following special forms are recognized:


Use Default Values. If variable is unset or null, the expansion of word is substituted. Otherwise, the value of variable is substituted.


Assign Default Values. If variable is unset or null, the expansion of word is assigned to variable. The value of variable is then substituted.

The assigned value remains in effet during expansion of the current string.


Display Error if Null or Unset. If variable is null or unset, the expansion of word (or a message to that effect if word is not present) is output to the current logging channel. Otherwise, the value of variable is substituted.


Use Alternate Value. If variable is null or unset, nothing is substituted, otherwise the expansion of word is substituted.

These constructs test for a variable that is unset or null. Omitting the colon results in a test only for a variable that is unset.

If a string contains a reference to an undefined variable, wydawca will report an error and abort. To gracefully handle such cases, use the default value construct, defined above.


A here-document is a special construct that allows to introduce strings of text containing embedded newlines.

The <<word construct instructs the parser to read all the following lines up to the line containing only word, with possible trailing blanks. Any lines thus read are concatenated together into a single string. For example:

A multiline

Body of a here-document is interpreted the same way as double-quoted string, unless word is preceded by a backslash (e.g. ‘<<\EOT’) or enclosed in double-quotes, in which case the text is read as is, without interpretation of escape sequences.

If word is prefixed with - (a dash), then all leading tab characters are stripped from input lines and the line containing word. Furthermore, if - is followed by a single space, all leading whitespace is stripped from them. This allows to indent here-documents in a natural fashion. For example:

<<- TEXT
    All leading whitespace will be
    ignored when reading these lines.

It is important that the terminating delimiter be the only token on its line. The only exception to this rule is allowed if a here-document appears as the last element of a statement. In this case a semicolon can be placed on the same line with its terminating delimiter, as in:

help-text <<-EOT
        A sample help text.

A list is a comma-separated list of values. Lists are enclosed in parentheses. The following example shows a statement whose value is a list of strings:

alias (test,null);

In any case where a list is appropriate, a single value is allowed without being a member of a list: it is equivalent to a list with a single member. This means that, e.g.

alias test;

is equivalent to

alias (test);
time interval specification

The time interval specification is a string that defines an interval, much the same way we do this in English: it consists of one or more pairs ‘number’-‘time unit’. For example, the following are valid interval specifications:

"1 hour"
"2 hours 35 seconds"
"1 year 7 months 2 weeks 2 days 11 hours 12 seconds"

The pairs can occur in any order, however unusual it may sound to a human ear, e.g. ‘2 days 1 year’. If the ‘time unit’ is omitted, seconds are supposed.

A block statement introduces a logical group of statements. It consists of a keyword, followed by an optional value, and a sequence of statements enclosed in curly braces, as shown in the example below:

spool download {
  source /home/ftp/incoming/ftp;
  destination /home/ftp/pub;

The closing curly brace may be followed by a semicolon, although this is not required.

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4.1.4 Preprocessor

Before parsing its configuration file, wydawca preprocesses it. The built-in preprocessor handles only file inclusion and #line statements (see Pragmatic Comments), while the rest of traditional preprocessing facilities, such as macro expansion, is supported via m4, which is used as an external preprocessor.

The detailed description of m4 facilities lies far beyond the scope of this document. You will find a complete user manual in http://www.gnu.org/software/m4/manual. For the rest of this subsection we assume the reader is sufficiently acquainted with m4 macro processor.

The external preprocessor is invoked with -s flag, which instructs it to include line synchronization information in its output. This information is then used by the parser to display meaningful diagnostic. An initial set of macro definitions is supplied by the pp-setup file, located in $prefix/share/wydawca/version/include directory (where version means the version of Wydawca package).

The default pp-setup file renames all m4 built-in macro names so they all start with the prefix ‘m4_’. This is similar to GNU m4 --prefix-builtin options, but has an advantage that it works with non-GNU m4 implementations as well.

To examine the preprocessed configuration, use the -E option. The output from m4 will be printed on the standard output and the program will terminate.

Additional control over the preprocessor is provided via the following command line options:


Define the preprocessor symbol name as having value, or empty.


Add dir to the list of directories searched for preprocessor include files.


Disable preprocessor.


Use command instead of the default preprocessor.

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4.2 General Settings

Config: foreground bool

If bool is ‘yes’, run in foreground. See foreground.

Config: umask value

Set the default umask. The value argument must be an octal number.

Config: file-sweep-time time

Consider triplet expired if its oldest file was created more than time seconds ago. See time interval specification, for the syntax of time. Default is 300 seconds.

This parameter may also be set for each spool individually. See file-sweep-time.

Config: gpg-homedir dir

Set default GPG home directory. The keys for signing outgoing messages are looked up in this directory. See gpg-sign, and gpg-sign.

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4.3 Upload Directive Versions

At the time of this writing, FSF has published three versions of the upload directives, numbered 1.0 through 1.2. The version 1.0 is considered obsolete and was withdrawn in 2006. The only difference between versions 1.1 and 1.2 is in handling of files that existed prior to upload. The version 1.1 implied automatic archivation of the existing files and their replacement with the newly uploaded versions. The version 1.2 introduces a new keyword (‘replace’) for that purpose, which determines its further actions.

For a detailed information about version 1.1, see Standalone directives.

The version 1.2 and its differences from 1.1 are discussed in Standalone directives.

By default, wydawca supports both versions. The supported range of versions can be abridged using the following configuration statements:

Config: min-version vn

Sets minimal allowed directive file version. The vn argument must have the form ‘major.minor’ and can not be less than ‘1.1’.

Config: max-version vn

Sets maximal allowed directive file version.

For example, the following statements configure wydawca to accept only directive files of version 1.2:

min-version 1.2;
max-version 1.2;

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4.4 User Privileges

Wydawca refuses to run with the root privileges. You should configure its user privileges by using user and, optionally, group statements in its configuration file:

Config: user name

Run with UID and GID of the user name.

Config: group list

Retain the supplementary groups from the list. The latter must contain group names. For example:

group (nogroup, ftp);

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4.5 Daemon Configuration

Statements in this section configure the daemon mode.

Config: daemon bool

Enable daemon mode.

Config: inotify bool

Enables or disables the inotify watcher. By default, inotify is always enabled on GNU/Linux systems (unless disabled at the configure time). It can also be configured for each spool individually (See inotify. See inotify, for a detailed description of this feature.

Config: listen url

Listen on this socket for incoming upload notifications (see upload notification). Allowed values for url are:


Listen on IPv46. address ip. Ip may be given either in a dotted quad notation or as a symbolic host name. Port is either a decimal port name, or a service name from /etc/services.


Listen on the UNIX socket file file, which is either an absolute or relative file name.

Config: all-spools name

Declare a special service name, which, when used in a upload notification request, will be treated as a request to process all spools.

Config: max-connections n

Limits the number of upload notification connections allowed to be open simultaneously. The default value is 16 connections.

Config: idle-timeout interval

Sets the idle timeout for upload notification connections. If a connection stays idle for more than the given interval, it will be closed forcibly. Default idle timout is 10 seconds.

See time interval specification, for the syntax of interval.

Config: pidfile file

Store master process PID in file. Default pidfile location is localstatedir/run/wydawca.pid.

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4.6 TCP Wrappers

Access to the socket specified in listen statement is controlled by the tcp-wrapper block statement:

Config: tcp-wrapper { … }
tcp-wrapper {
  enable arg:boolean;
  daemon name:string;
  allow-table file:string;
  deny-table file:string;
  allow-syslog-priority prio:string;
  deny-syslog-priority prio:string;

This statement is available only if wydawca was compiled with support for TCP wrappers.

Config: tcp-wrapper: enable bool

Enable or disable the use of TCP wrappers.

Config: tcp-wrapper: daemon name

Set the daemon name. It is the name before the colon in the access control file, that marks the line controlling access to wydawca. The default is ‘wydawca’.

Config: tcp-wrapper: allow-table file

File name of the positive access control file. By default /etc/hosts.allow.

Config: tcp-wrapper: deny-table file

File name of the negative access control file. By default /etc/hosts.deny.

Config: tcp-wrapper: allow-syslog-priority prio

Log allowed accesses via the given syslog priority.

Config: tcp-wrapper: deny-syslog-priority prio

Log denied accesses via the given syslog priority.

Allowed values for prio in the ‘allow-syslog-priority’ and ‘deny-syslog-priority’ statements are: ‘emerg’, ‘alert’, ‘crit’, ‘err’, ‘warning’, ‘notice’, ‘info’, and ‘debug’.

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4.7 Syslog Configuration Directives

Unless told otherwise, wydawca uses syslog to print its diagnostic messages. By default, the program uses the ‘daemon’ facility. The syslog statement allows to change that:

Config: syslog { ... }
syslog {
  facility local1;
  tag wydawca;
  print-priority yes;
Config: syslog: facility name

Configures the syslog facility to use. Allowed values are: ‘auth’, ‘authpriv’, ‘cron’, ‘daemon’, ‘ftp’, ‘local0’ through ‘local7’, and ‘mail’. These names are case-insensitive and may be optionally prefixed with ‘log_’ (case-insensitive as well).

Config: syslog: tag string

This statement sets the syslog tag, a string identifying each message issued by the program. By default, the name of the program (‘wydawca’) is used.

Config: syslog: print-priority bool

In addition to priority segregation, provided by syslog, you can instruct wydawca to prefix each syslog message with its priority. To do so, set:

print-priority yes;

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4.8 SQL Databases

Several statements in configuration file may need to access an SQL database. Wydawca is able to use any number of databases simultaneously, the only restriction being that they must be MySQL databases (this restriction will be removed in future releases).

A database is defined using sql block statement:

Config: sql id { ... }
sql id {
  config-file file;
  config-group group;
  host hostname;
  database dbname;
  user username;
  password string;
  ssl-ca string;

Here, id is a string uniquely identifying this database. It is used by other configuration statements (e.g. by dictionaries, see the next section) to refer to this database.

Config: sql: config-file name

Set the name of the SQL configuration file to read.

Config: sql: config-group name

Set the name of the group in the SQL configuration file, from where to read configuration options.

The statements above allow to keep all security-sensitive information, such as SQL username and password, in an external configuration file and thus to relax permission requirements for wydawca.conf. The exact format of such external configuration file depends on the flavor of SQL DBMS in use. As of version 4.0.3 wydawca supports only ‘MySQL’, so the configuration file is what is called option file in ‘MySQL’ parlance (see option files).

For example, suppose your wydawca.conf contains the following:

sql default {
  config-file /etc/wydawca.mysql;
  config-group wydawca;

Then, the /etc/wydawca.mysql would contain the actual parameters for accessing the database, e.g.:

socket = /var/db/mysql.sock
database = savane
user = savane
pass = guessme

Another way to specify database credentials is by using the statements described below. If you prefer this way, you will have to tighten the permissions of wydawca.conf so that no third person could see the SQL password. The recommended permissions are ‘0600’.

Config: sql: host hostname[:port-or-socket]

Set the hostname or IP address of the host running the database. Optional port-or-socket specifies port number (for TCP connections) or socket name (for UNIX sockets) to use. In the latter case, the hostname and the colon may be omitted. If, however, it is present, it must be ‘localhost’.

Config: sql: database name

Specifies the database name.

Config: sql: user name

Sets the database user name.

Config: sql: password string

Sets the password for accessing the database.

Config: sql: ssl-ca file

Sets the pathname to the certificate authority file, if you wish to use a secure connection to the server via SSL.

An example sql statement follows:

sql default {
  host db.example.org:3306;
  database savane;
  user root;
  password guessme;

It is possible to combine both methods, e.g.:

sql default {
  config-file /etc/wydawca.sql;
  host db.example.org:3306;
  database savane;

Then, wydawca will attempt to obtain the missing information (username and password, in this case) from the /etc/wydawca.sql file.

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4.9 Dictionaries

A dictionary defines the ways to retrieve user information necessary to verify the submission. This information can be, for example, the user’s PGP key or his permissions on a project.

A dictionary is defined in configuration file using the following syntax:

Config: dictionary { … }
dictionary dict-id {
  type type;
  query string;
  params (param1,param2,…);

The dictionary statement can appear either in the global scope of the configuration file, or inside a spool statement (see spool). Global definitions affect all spools in the configuration file, and ones inside a spool statement override them for that particular spool.

There are two dictionaries, identified by the value of dict-id tag:


Keeps email addresses and real names of administrators (or owners) of a project. It may return any number of rows, each one consisting of two columns: an email address and a user name, in this order.


Keeps system user names, real names, emails and GPG keys of the users that are allowed to make uploads for the project.

The sub-statements of dictionary are:

Config: dictionary: type name

Defines the type of this dictionary. Name is one of the following:


The data are supplied in the configuration file.


Retrieve data from an SQL database. Currently only MySQL is supported.


Retrieve data using an external program. This dictionary type is reserved for future use.

See below for a detailed description of these dictionary types.

Config: dictionary: query string

Sets the query used for retrieving the data. The string is subject to variable expansion (see variable expansion). The following variables are defined in this context:


The system name of the project for which the triplet is submitted. The project name is obtained from the directory directive. If the value of this directive contains subdirectories, the first (topmost) directory is used as ‘project’.


The name of the distribution spool where this upload originates (see spool).


The URL of the spool, as set in the url statement of the spool block (see url).


Directory (relative to the project distribution root) where the files are going to be uploaded.


Spool destination directory (see destination).


Spool source directory (see source).


The system name of the user that submitted the triplet. This is defined only for ‘project-owner’ dictionaries.


The value of the ‘comment’ field from the directive file.

Config: dictionary: params (param1, param2, …)

Supplies additional parameters.

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4.9.1 SQL Dictionary

Dictionaries of ‘sql’ type retrieve information from an SQL database (as of version 4.0.3, only ‘MySQL’ databases are supported).

The query statement supplies the SQL query to execute. Normally, it should be a SELECT query.

The params statement must supply a single parameter – the identifier of one of the preceding sql blocks (see sql), which determines database name and user credentials needed to access it.

The following sub-nodes contain sample definitions for the sql dictionaries. They are based on the database structure used in Savane system.

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This dictionary retrieves email addresses and real names of administrators (or owners) of a project. It may return any number of rows, each one consisting of two columns: an email address and a user name, in this order.

dictionary project-owner {
  type sql;
  params (default);
  query   "SELECT user.email, user.realname "
          "FROM user,user_group,groups "
          "WHERE user_group.user_id=user.user_id "
          "AND user_group.group_id=groups.group_id "
          "AND user_group.admin_flags = 'A' "
          "AND groups.unix_group_name = '${project}'";

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This dictionary assumes that the ‘user’ table has a special column, ‘upload_flags’, whose value is ‘Y’ for those users who can do uploads for this project:

dictionary project-uploader {
  type sql;
  params (default);
  query   "SELECT user.email, user.realname "
          "FROM user,user_group,groups "
          "WHERE user_group.user_id=user.user_id "
          "AND user_group.group_id=groups.group_id "
          "AND user_group.upload_flags = 'Y' "
          "AND groups.unix_group_name = '${project}'";

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4.9.2 Built-in Dictionary

Builtin dictionaries are small dictionaries that keep all data in their params list. They are designed mainly for testing purposes.

Look ups in builtin dictionaries are performed as follows: The query value is expanded (see query). The resulting value is used as a key for lookup in params list. The list scanned as follows:

  1. INIT

    Let i be the index of the current element in params. Set i to 0.

  2. GETEL

    Get the ith element.

  3. If it begins with a slash, interpret it as comparison type indicator. Its possible values are:

    Exact comparison. The key must be exactly equivalent to the dictionary field.


    Dictionary field is treated as an fnmatch globbing pattern. See globbing pattern in glob man page.


    Dictionary field is treated as a regular expression. Unless configured otherwise by flags (see below), POSIX extended regular expressions are used (see Extended regular expressions in GNU sed).

    If that word ends with a comma, the characters following it are flags, defining the type of matching. Allowed flags are:

    iIgnore case
    bUse basic regular expressions

    For example, the string ‘/exact,i’ specifies case-insensitive exact comparison, the string ‘/regex,bi’ specifies case-insensitive basic regular expression matching, etc.

    Go to step ‘INCR’.

  4. COMP

    Compare the element with the key, using currently selected comparison method.

  5. If the element matches the key, add elements i+1 through i+n to the result set. The value for n is selected as follows:
  6. Set i = i + n
  7. INCR

    Set i = i + 1.

  8. LOOP

    If i is greater than the number of elements in param, then stop. Otherwise, go to step ‘GETEL’.

For example, the following defines the ‘project-owner’ dictionary, containing data for projects ‘foo’ and ‘bar’:

dictionary project-owner {
  type builtin;
  query "${project}";
  params ("/exact",
          "foo", "foo-owner@domain.net", "Foo Admin",
          "bar", "smith@other.net", "John Smith");

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4.9.3 External Dictionary

As of version 4.0.3 this dictionary is not yet implemented.

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4.10 Directory Setup

Wydawca operates on three kinds of directories: spool source directories (see source), destination directories (see destination) and archive directories (see archivation). By default, wydawca assumes that all directories specified in its configuration file already exist and have proper ownership and modes. It will abort if it is not so.

You can configure wydawca to create these directories as needed, and to set up their ownership and modes automatically.

Config: create-directories bool

If set to ‘yes’, this statement instructs wydawca to create any missing directories.

Config: directory-mode mode

Specifies the mode for created directories (in octal). If the directory already exists, its mode will be checked and if necessary changed to mode.

This statement is overridden by per-directory statements: source-mode and destination-mode statements in spool block (see spool) and directory-mode statement in archive block (see archivation).

Config: directory-owner uid gid

Configures owner user and group IDs for source, destination and archive directories.

The uid argument is either a numeric UID prefixed with a plus sign, or a symbolic user name, which will be converted to the numeric UID using the system user database. If a number without the ‘+’ prefix is supplied, it will first be looked in the password database as the user name, and, if no such user is found, it will be used as the numeric UID.

The same holds for the gid argument.

This statement is overridden by per-directory statements: source-owner and destination-owner statements in spool block (see spool) and directory-owner statement in archive block (see archivation).

Notice, that both directory-mode and directory-owner apply only to the last component of the created directory (‘basename’). Any intermediate directories are created with default mode and ownership.

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4.11 Archivation

There may be cases when project maintainers need to overwrite existing distributed files with another ones, having the same names. (Note, however, that this practice is not encouraged). In that case, wydawca needs to first archive the already existing file, and then put the new one in its place. Moreover, the directive file format allows maintainers to explicitly require archivation of their existing files.

Wydawca supports two basic archivation methods: to a tar file, and to a separate directory. The method to be used is configured using archive statement. This statement can appear either in the global scope, in which case it affects all spools, or within a spool block (see spool), where it affects only the given spool.

Config: archive type
archive type {
  # Name of archive file or directory
  name file-or-dir;

  # Define backup type
  backup type;

  # mode for the archive directory
  directory-mode mode;

  # owner user and group for the archive directory
  directory-owner uid gid;

The type argument specifies the archivation type:


Disable archivation.


Add to a tar archive.


Store file in a separate directory.

Config: archive: name file-or-dir

Specify the name of the tar archive (if type ‘tar’ is used) or destination directory (if type ‘directroy’ is used).

If the archivation type tar is used, the name statement sets the full name of the tar archive to use, e.g.:

archive tar {
  name /var/spool/uploads/archive.tar;

The file being archived is appended to the archive using tar -r (see Appending Files to an Archive in GNU tar: an archiver tool). Any archived instance can subsequently be retrieved using GNU tar --occurrence option (see Multiple Files with the Same Name in GNU tar: an archiver tool).

Config: tar-program name

By default, wydawca will search for tar binary in your search path. If you wish to use a particular binary, you may specify its full file name using tar-program statement.

The ‘directory’ archivation type means that archive copies will be stored in a directory specified by the name statement. If it begins with a slash (i.e. represents an absolute file name), an exact copy of the distribution directory hierarchy will be created under it. For example, given this configuration:

archive directory {
  name /var/backups/gnu;

all files from /home/ftp/gnu/tar will be archived in /var/backups/gnu/tar, and files from /home/ftp/gnu/tar/old will be archived in /var/backups/gnu/tar/old, etc.

If the directory name does not begin with a slash, it will be created under the corresponding distribution directory. For example, the following archivation settings:

archive directory {
  name .archive;

mean that files from /home/ftp/gnu/tar will be archived in the directory /home/ftp/gnu/tar/.archive, files from /home/ftp/gnu/tar/old — in /home/ftp/gnu/tar/.archive/old, etc.

Config: archive: backup type

When using the ‘directory’ archivation type, it may happen that the archive file with the same name as the one about to be created already exists. This statement specifies how to handle the existing copy, in other words, how to backup it. The type argument corresponds to the ‘version-control’ Emacs variable. The following table describes its possible values:


Always make numbered backups.


Make numbered backups of files that already have them, and simple backups of the others.


Always make simple backups.

If no backup method is given, ‘existing’ is assumed

Config: archive: directory-mode mode

Sets directory mode for creating the directory (octal). If the directory already exists, its mode will be checked and if necessary changed to mode.

This statement overrides the global directory-mode statement (see directory setup).

Config: archive: directory-owner uid gid

Configures owner user and group IDs for created archive directories. If the archive directory already exists, its ownership will be checked and if necessary reverted to uid:gid.

See directory-owner, for a discussion of the syntax for uid and gid.

This statement overrides the global directory-mode statement (see directory setup).

Signature files (i.e. the ones ending with ‘.sig’) are usually located in the same directory as the files they sign. To enforce this rule, wydawca implements implicit signature archivation facility. It works as follows. When archivation of file is requested by archive: file statement in the directive file, wydawca also checks if the file named file.sig exists. If so, it is archived along with file.

Config: archive-signatures bool

If implicit signature archivation is not needed, use the archive-signatures statement to disable it, e.g.:

archive-signatures no;

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4.12 Distribution Spool

A distribution spool defines the location of the source directory and the corresponding distribution (or destination) directory. It may also set archivation type, various dictionaries and notifications for that directory, thus overriding the global settings.

The spool block statement defines a distribution spool:

Config: spool tag { … }
spool tag {
  url url;
  alias (aliases);
  inotify bool;
  source dir;
  source-mode mode;
  source-owner uid gid;
  destination dir;
  destination-mode mode;
  destination-owner uid gid;
  file-sweep-time interval;
  dictionary { … }
  archive { … }
  notify-event { … }

The tag argument defines a unique identifier for this spool. It will be used in log messages and is available for variable expansion (see variable expansion) as the ‘$spool’ variable.

Config: spool: alias list

Defines a list of aliases, i.e. alternative tag names for this spool.

Config: spool: inotify bool

Enables or disables the inotify watcher for this spool. By default, inotify is always enabled on GNU/Linux systems (unless explicitly disabled at the configure time). See inotify, for a detailed description of this feature.

Config: spool: url string

Defines download URL, associated with this spool. Its value may be used as the variable ‘$url’ in mail notifications.

Config: spool: source dir

Specifies the location of the source directory.

Config: spool: source-mode mode

Sets directory mode for creating the source directory (octal). If the directory already exists, its mode will be checked and if necessary changed to mode.

This statement overrides the global directory-mode statement (see directory setup).

Config: spool: source-owner uid gid

Configures owner user and group IDs for the source directory. If the directory already exists, its ownership will be checked and if necessary reverted to uid:gid.

See directory-owner, for a discussion of the syntax for uid and gid.

This statement overrides the global directory-mode statement (see directory setup).

Config: spool: destination dir

Specifies the type and location of the destination directory. The dir argument must be either an absolute name of a directory on the local file system, or a special URL. Wydawca version 4.0.3 supports two destination URL schemes:


Equivalent to dir-name alone. Defines a destination directory located on the local file system.


Defines a null upload spool. Null spools implement all tests described in overview, but do not do any actual copying. The uploaded files are simply removed after checks are over. Null spools are useful mainly for diagnostic purposes.

The following two statements apply only if the destination is a local directory (‘file://’ or ‘dir://’ URL scheme):

Config: spool: destination-mode mode

Sets directory mode for creating the destination directory (octal). If the directory already exists, its mode will be checked and if necessary changed to mode.

This statement overrides the global directory-mode statement (see directory setup).

Config: spool: destination-owner uid gid

Configures the owner user and group IDs for the destination directory. If the directory already exists, its ownership will be checked and if necessary reverted to uid:gid.

See directory-owner, for a discussion of the syntax for uid and gid.

This statement overrides the global directory-mode statement (see directory setup).

The following statements, if present, override the corresponding global definitions for this spool.

Config: spool: archive { … }

Configure spool-specific archivation. See archivation, for its description.

Config: spool: dictionary tag { … }

Configure spool-specific dictionary. See dictionaries, for a detailed discussion of this statement.

Config: spool: file-sweep-time time

Set expiration time for triplets in this spool. A triplet is considered expired if its oldest file was created more than time seconds ago. This statement overrides the global ‘file-sweep-time’ setting (see file-sweep-time).

Config: spool: notify-event { … }

Configure spool-specific event notification. See notification, for a detailed discussion of this statement.

The source and destination statements are mandatory.

For example, the following definition says that valid uploads to /home/ftp/incoming/ftp should be transferred to /home/ftp/gnu:

spool ftp {
 url ftp://ftp.gnu.org.ua;
 source /home/ftp/incoming/ftp;
 destination /home/ftp/gnu;

This spool defines no particular archivation type, dictionary or notifications, so it will inherit these settings from the global configuration.

The following example shows the same spool, that additionally sets its own archivation method:

spool ftp {
 url ftp://ftp.gnu.org.ua;
 source /home/ftp/incoming/ftp;
 destination /home/ftp/gnu;
 archive directory {
   name .archive;
   backup numbered;

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4.13 Distribution Verification

After the submission has been verified, wydawca may also run an additional check to verify whether the main file (normally, a tarball) is OK to be distributed. To set up such distribution verification, add the following statement either in the global scope, or within a ‘spool’ declaration:

Config: check-script text
Config:spool: check-script text

Define the distribution verification script. The text must be a valid sh program. It is executed without arguments, in a temporary directory which contains a copy of the main distribution file. The script can refer to the following environment variables:

Check Environment: WYDAWCA_SPOOL

Spool tag.

Check Environment: WYDAWCA_SOURCE

Spool source directory, as set by the source statement (see tag).

Check Environment: WYDAWCA_DEST

Spool destination directory (see destination).

Check Environment: WYDAWCA_URL

Spool URL (see url).


Base name of the triplet.

Check Environment: WYDAWCA_DIST_FILE

File name of the main distribution file.

Apart from these, the script inherits wydawca environment.

The submission is accepted only if the script returns 0. Otherwise, it is rejected and the ‘check-failure’ event (see event notification) is generated.

In case of non-zero return, the script may return additional diagnostics on the standard output. This diagnostics will be available for use in notification messages via the ‘$check:diagn’ variable.

Additionally, the actual return code of the script, in decimal, is available in the ‘$check:result’ variable. If the script terminates on a signal, the value of this variable is ‘SIG+n’, where n is the signal number.

If both global and spool ‘check-script’s are defined, wydawca executes both scripts as if they were connected by a logical ‘&&’, i.e. per-spool script is executed only if the global one returned success (‘0’). The submission is accepted only if both scripts returned ‘0’.

Since the script usually contains several lines, the ‘config-script’ value is usually supplied using a here-document construct (see here-document).

The following example illustrates the use of ‘config-script’ to catch possible security holes in the distributed Makefile.in files7

  check-script <<EOT
  if tar -xOf ${WYDAWCA_DIST_FILE} --occurrence=1 \
      --wildcards --no-wildcards-match-slash '*/Makefile.in' | \
      grep -q 'perm -777'; then
    fmt <<_EOF_
The top-level Makefile.in in ${WYDAWCA_DIST_FILE} changes mode of
all the directories below the build tree to 777 before creating
the tarball. This constitutes a security hole (see CVE-2009-4029[1],
for more details).

Please, rebuild the package using a newer Automake (at least v. 1.11.1)
and resubmit.
    cat <<_EOF_
[1] http://article.gmane.org/gmane.comp.sysutils.autotools.announce/131
    exit 1

exit 0

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4.14 Statistics

Periodically wydawca produces statistic dumps. These dumps are displayed on the diagnostic channel ‘info’ (and optionally mailed to the admimistrator). The frequency with which they are produced is defined by the stat-report-schedule configuration statement.

Config: stat-report-schedule time

Schedules generation of statistic reports. The time argument is a time specification in ‘crontab’ format (see crontab in crontab(5) manual page). By default, reports are generated hourly.

To create reports each three hours, set

stat-report-schedule "0 */3 * * *";

To create them at midnight, use

stat-report-schedule "@midnight";

See Event timestamps in WY_stat, if statistic reports appear to be generated one second prior to their scheduled time.

Statistic report is suppressed if there were no uploads since the last report.

The following example illustrates what you might get if you configured full statistic reports:

errors: 0
warnings: 2
bad signatures: 0
access violation attempts: 0
complete triplets: 6
incomplete triplets: 2
bad triplets: 0
expired triplets: 0
triplet successes: 6
files uploaded: 12
files archived: 2
symlinks created: 0
symlinks removed: 0

Each item in this report is configurable, and a unique configuration keyword is associated with it. The statistic items and their corresponding keywords are described in the table below:


Any error that occurred during the run.


Any warning condition occurred during the run.


A PGP signature not matches the public key for the user that issued it.


A user is attempting to upload files for some project, but it is not authorized to do so.


A complete triplet is registered.


An incomplete triplet is registered, i.e. such that misses one or more of its files. Notice, that a directive file alone is counted as a complete triplet, provided that its signature verifies correctly and that it does not contain file directive.


A triplet contains files owned by different users.


A triplet has expired.


A triplet is processed successfully


An upload is processed successfully. An upload is defined as a move of a file and its detached signature from the source to the destination directory.


An archivation is performed


A symlink is created.


A symlink is removed.

There are two ways to enable statistic reports. The built-in statistic output is enabled using the statistics keyword.

Config: statistics list

The amount of information included in statistic report is configured using the statistics statement. This statement takes a list of arguments, each one being one of the keywords, described above. For example, the following statement causes only the information about errors and warnings to be printed:

statistics (errors, warnings);

The output produced looks like:

errors: 0
warnings: 2

A special keyword ‘none’ can be used to suppress this output altogether (which is the default), as in

statistics none;

Another special keyword is ‘all’. It enables full statistic report. This keyword may also be followed by any number of statistic item names, which are in this case excluded from the summary. For example, to output all statistic data, except errors and warnings one would set:

statistics (all, errors, warnings);

More elaborate output can be produced using the mod_logstat loadable module. See mod_logstat, for a detailed discussion.

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4.15 Notification Mechanism

While running, wydawca keeps track of certain events occurring, such as, for example, broken PGP signatures or file uploads attempted by unauthorized users. It can issue notifications about such events using the supplied loadable modules.

Configuration of notifications consists of two parts. First the required loadable module must be loaded and configured. Then, configure the notification itself.

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4.15.1 modules

A loadable module is a piece of software that provides notification mechanism for wydawca. It is built as a UNIX dynamically loaded library and placed in one of the preconfigured directories which constitute a library load path. To load a module, the following statement is used:

Config: module name file

Load the module name from file. Other places of the configuration file can refer to the module as name.

The file argument is a file name of the module (normally, a ‘file.so’ or ‘file.la’ file).

Unless file in the ‘module’ statement is an absolute file name, it will be searched in the library load path, which is defined as:

  1. Optional prefix search directories specified by the ‘module-prepend-load-path’ directive (see below).
  2. Wydawca module directory: ‘$prefix/lib/wydawca’.
  3. Additional search directories specified by the module-load-path directive (see below).
  4. The value of the environment variable LTDL_LIBRARY_PATH.
  5. The system dependent library search path (e.g. on GNU/Linux it is defined by the file /etc/ld.so.conf and the environment variable LD_LIBRARY_PATH).

The value of LTDL_LIBRARY_PATH and LD_LIBRARY_PATH must be a colon-separated list of absolute directory names, for example ‘/usr/lib/mypkg:/lib/foo’.

In any of these directories, wydawca first attempts to find and load the given filename. If this fails, it tries to append the following suffixes to it:

  1. the libtool archive suffix: ‘.la
  2. the suffix used for native dynamic libraries on the host platform, e.g., ‘.so’, ‘.sl’, etc.

The statements that modify the module search path are:

Config: module-load-path list

This directive adds the directories listed in its argument to the module load path. Example:

module-load-path (/usr/lib/wydawca,/usr/local/wydawca/lib);
Config: module-prepend-load-path list

Same as above, but the directories from list are added to the beginning of the module search list, rather than to its end. The order of directories in list is preserved in both cases.

Once loaded, the module can be initialized. This is done in the following block statement:

Config: module-init name { ... }

Initialize the module identified by name. The module must have been previously loaded using the ‘module’ statement, as described above. The statements between curly braces are module-specific configuration statements. See the module descriptions below for a detailed discussion of these.

To list module-specific configuration directives with a short usage instructions, use the --module-help statement:

wydawca --module-help=file

If the file argument is the base module name (e.g. ‘mod_mailutils’), it will be looked in the default library load path (see library search path). If it contains directory components, the file will be loaded from the specified directory.

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4.15.2 Event Notification

A number of events are tracked during the execution. Any of them can be used to trigger the notification mechanism. It is configured using the following statement:

Config: notify-event { ... }
notify-event {
    # Event on which to notify
    event eid;

    # Name of the module to invoke on event
    module modname;

    # Module-specific configuration data
    module-config {
Config: notify-event: event eid

Trigger the notification when the event identified by eid occurs. The identified eid is one of the following:


Successful upload.


An unauthorized user attempted to upload files for their project.


The directive signature does not match the public key of the uploader.


The detached signature does not match the public key of the uploader.


Distribution verification failed. See verification, for a detailed description.


This event produces statistics about the recent jobs performed by wydawca. In daemon mode, it is scheduled periodically as controlled by the stat-report-schedule statement. In cron mode it is emitted when all spools have been processed.

For compatibility with wydawca versions prior to 3.1.95, the event name ‘finish’ can be used instead of ‘statistics’.

See statreports, for a detailed discussion. See also mod_logstat.

Config: notify-event: module modname

Identify the module responsible for the notification. The modname argument must have been previously initialized in a module statement (see modules).

Config: notify-event: module-config { ... }

This block provides module-specific configuration for modname. Its content depends on the module used for notification. The version 4.0.3 of wydawca is shipped with two notification modules: mod_mailutils for notifications via electronic mail, and mod_logstat for logging the information via syslog. These modules are described in detail later.

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4.15.3 mod_mailutils– Mail Notification

Mail notification is configured using the mod_mailutils module. To load the module, add the following statement:

module mailutils mod_mailutils.so;

The module-init section can contain the following statements:

mod_mailutils: from-address address

Set sender address for outgoing mails. E.g.:

from-address ftp-uploads@gnu.org.ua;

It is not strictly necessary to specify the sender address. In the absence of from-address statement, the sender email will be constructed from the name of the user wydawca runs as (see user privileges) and the full domain name of the machine it runs at.

mod_mailutils: admin-address email

Sets the admin email address or addresses. The statistic notifications and any notifications configured to be sent to admins will be forwarded to this address. The email argument is either a RFC 822 email address, or a list of such addresses. For example, the following statement configures a single admin address:

admin-address root@gnu.org.ua;

The example below illustrates how to configure multiple addresses:

admin-address "root@gnu.org.ua,ftp-adm@gnu.org.ua";

Yet another way to configure them is:

admin-address (root@gnu.org.ua, ftp-adm@gnu.org.ua);

Wydawca:   Section:   Chapter:FastBack: configuring   Up: mod_mailutils   FastForward: wydawca.conf   Contents: Table of ContentsIndex: Concept Index Mailer

To send messages, mod_mailutils uses a special logical entity called a mailer. It is set in the module-init block using the mailer keyword.

mod_mailutils: mailer url

Set mailer URL.

A mailer URL consists of a scheme specification, followed by ‘://’ separator and additional data. The URLs supported by Wydawca version 4.0.3 are described in the table below. As usual, square brackets indicate optional parts:


Use an SMTP server on host to relay messages. The host part is either an IP address in dotted-quad notation or as a symbolic host name. In the latter case, DNS system is be used to resolve it. Optional port specifies port number or symbolic name (as defined in /etc/services). It defaults to 25. For example:

mailer smtp://remote.server.net:24;

Use sendmail-compatible program progname. Sendmail-compatible means that the program must be able to read an RFC-822 message from its standard input and must support the following command line options:


Do not treat ‘.’ as message terminator.

-f addr

Use addr as the sender address.


Get recipient addresses from the message.


mailer sendmail:///usr/sbin/exim;

This is a special form of the ‘sendmail’ mailer. It uses the sendmail binary from the _PATH_SENDMAIL macro in your /usr/include/paths.h. It is the default mailer.


A prog mailer. This is a generalization of ‘sendmail’ mailer that allows to use arbitrary external programs as mailers.

The full file name of the program is given in progname part. The query part is a list of arguments, separated by ‘&’ signs. Arguments may contain the following macro-substitutions:


Expands to the sender email address.


Expands to the recipient email addresses.

The program progname must read an RFC-822 message from its standard input.

An example of ‘prog’ mailer definition:

mailer "prog:///bin/nullmail?localhost&-F${sender}&${rcpt}

When sending a mail, wydawca will invoke:

/bin/nullmail localhost -Fsender rcpt

where sender means the sender address, and rcpt stands for the recipient email address.

| prog args..

Equivalent to the ‘prog’ mailer, described above, but written in a more natural fashion. In this notation, the example definition above becomes:

mailer "|/bin/nullmail localhost -F${sender} ${rcpt}"

Wydawca:   Section:   Chapter:FastBack: configuring   Up: mod_mailutils   FastForward: wydawca.conf   Contents: Table of ContentsIndex: Concept Index Message Templates

Each notification message is built from a message template, by expanding variables (see variable expansion) within it. The message text may be specified either in place within the configuration directive it belongs to (see notification), or defined by define-message statement.

mod_mailutils: define-message name text

Define message name to be text. This message can be referred to from other configuration statements by @name notation.

The message text must be formatted as a valid RFC-822 message, i.e. it must consist of two parts, message headers and body, separated by a single empty line. Therefore text is usually a here-document construct (see here-document). For example:

define-message my-message <<EOT
From: Wydawca
Subject: test

This is a test message.

If you do not wish to supply any headers (which is unlikely, because a mail should at least have a Subject header), simply begin the message text with an empty line, like this:

define-message my-message <<EOT

This is a test message.

Wydawca:   Section:   Chapter:FastBack: configuring   Up: mod_mailutils   FastForward: wydawca.conf   Contents: Table of ContentsIndex: Concept Index Statistic Reports

mod_mailutils: mail-statistics { … }

The mail-statistics statement in the module-init section for mod_mailutils configures the statistic reports sent to the system administrator.

mail-statistics {
  message text-or-id;
  statistics item-list;
  gpg-sign key;

To arrange for sending the reports, the configuration must contain the following statement:

notify-event {
  event statistics;
  module mailutils;
mail-statistics: message text-or-id

Define the message text. The argument is either the message text template, or a reference to a template previously defined by a define-message (see templates). The reference syntax is:

message @name;

where name is the message name as used in define-message.

mail-statistics: statistics item-list

The argument is a list of statistic item names as described in statistics. A report will be sent only if statistic counters for at least one of the requested items are not zero. For example, the following statement requires sending notifications only if there occurred any errors or access violation attempts, or any bad signature was uploaded:

statistics (errors, access-violations, bad-signatures);
mail-statistics: gpg-sign key

If this statement is present, the message will be signed using the supplied GPG key. The key is looked up in the GPG home directory (see gpg-homedir).

The statistics message is sent to addresses configured by admin-address statement (see admin-address).

The variables available for use in statistic reports are:

VariableReplaced with
dateCurrent date and time in the current locale.
stat:errorsNumber of errors detected.
stat:warningsNumber of warnings reported.
stat:bad_signaturesNumber of bad signatures detected.
stat:access_violationsNumber of access violation attempts.
stat:complete_tripletsNumber of complete triplets processed.
stat:incomplete_tripletsNumber of incomplete triplets left in the source directory.
stat:bad_tripletsNumber of bad triplets seen.
stat:expired_tripletsNumber of expired triplets.
stat:triplet_successNumber of successfully processed triplets.
stat:uploadsNumber of successful uploads.
stat:archivesNumber of archivations performed.
stat:symlinksNumber of symbolic links created.
stat:rmsymlinksNumber of symbolic links removed.
stat:check_failuresNumber of verification failures (see verification).

An example definition of the admin notification template follows:

mail-statistics {
  statistics (errors,warnings,bad_signatures,
  message <<EOT
Subject: Wydawca stats

This is to notify you that my run on ${date}
caused the following results:

errors ............................. ${stat:errors}
warning ............................ ${stat:warnings}
bad signatures ..................... ${stat:bad_signatures}
access violation attempts .......... ${stat:access_violations}


Wydawca:   Section:   Chapter:FastBack: configuring   Up: mod_mailutils   FastForward: wydawca.conf   Contents: Table of ContentsIndex: Concept Index module-config for mod_mailutils

When mod_mailutils is used in the notify-event block, the following statements can be used in module-config to configure it:

notify-event {
    module mailutils;
    # module configuration
    module-config {
        # Notify this recipient
        recipient who;

        # Sign message with this key
        gpg-sign key;

        # Text of the notification or identifier of a defined message
        # template
        message text-or-id;
mod_mailutils config: recipient who

Determines who should receive the notification. The following values for who are allowed:


Read recipients from the ‘To’, ‘Cc’ and ‘Bcc’ headers of the message. This is the default.


The system administrator, as defined in admin-address statement (see admin-address).


Administrators of the project for which the files where uploaded. Their addresses are retrieved from the ‘project-owner’ dictionary (see dictionaries).


User name of the user who uploaded files.

mod_mailutils config: gpg-sign key

If this statement is present, the message will be signed using the supplied GPG key. The key is looked up in the GPG home directory (see gpg-homedir).

mod_mailutils config: message text-or-id

Define the message text. The argument is either the message text template, or a reference to a template previously defined by a define-message (see templates).

The following macro-variables are expanded in the message texts:

VariableReplaced with
projectProject system name.
urlURL of the distribution site.
spoolName of the spool (see spool).
dirDirectory (relative to the project distribution root) where the files where uploaded.
dest-dirValue of the destination keyword.
source-dirValue of the source keyword.
triplet:distFile name of the main distribution file.
triplet:sigFile name of the detached signature file.
triplet:dirFile name of the directive file.
triplet:ls:fullA full listing of the uploaded triplet8.
triplet:ls:uploadListing of the uploaded files (see below).
triplet:ls:distListing of the main distribution file (see below).
triplet:ls:sigListing of the detached signature file (see below).
triplet:ls:dirListing of the directive file (see below).
userSystem name of the user who uploaded the triplet.
user:nameSystem name of the user who uploaded the triplet.
user:real-nameReal name of the user who uploaded the triplet.
user:emailEmail of the user who uploaded the triplet.
email:adminFull9. email address of the systems administrator, as set by the ‘admin-address’ (see admin-address).
email:ownerFull email address of the project administrator (owner).
email:userFull email address of the user who did the upload. Equivalent to ‘"${user:real-name}" <${user:email}>’.
check:resultCode returned by external checker, in decimal. See check-result, for a detailed description.
check:diagnDiagnostics text returned by external checker. See verification, for a detailed description.

Listings referred to in the table above, are similar to those produced by the ls command, and include information on file permissions, ownership, size and modification date. For example, here is a possible ${triplet:ls:full} listing:

-rw-r--r-- gray users 2707278 2007-09-06 22:14:35 tar-1.18.tar.gz
-rw-r--r-- gray users     189 2007-09-06 22:14:35 tar-1.18.tar.gz.sig
-rw-r--r-- gray user       62 2007-09-06 22:14:35 tar-1.18.tar.gz.directive.asc

The example in the following subsection shows how to configure success notification for the user.

Wydawca:   Section:   Chapter:FastBack: configuring   Up: mod_mailutils   FastForward: wydawca.conf   Contents: Table of ContentsIndex: Concept Index Example of mod_mailutils configuration

This subsection provides a complete example for mod_mailutils configuration.

module mailutils mod_mailutils.la;

module-init mailutils {
    admin-address "root@example.net";
    from-address "wydawca@example.net";
    mailer "sendmail:";

    mail-statistics {
        statistics all;
        message <<- EOT
    Subject: upload statistics

    This is to notify you that the run of wydawca on ${date}
    caused the following results:

    errors ............................. ${stat:errors}
    warning ............................ ${stat:warnings}
    bad signatures ..................... ${stat:bad_signatures}
    access violation attempts .......... ${stat:access_violations}
    complete triplets .................. ${stat:complete_triplets}
    incomplete triplets ................ ${stat:incomplete_triplets}
    bad triplets ....................... ${stat:bad_triplets}
    expired triplets ................... ${stat:expired_triplets}
    triplet successes .................. ${stat:triplet_success}
    files uploaded ..................... ${stat:uploads}
    files archived ..................... ${stat:archives}
    symlinks created ................... ${stat:symlinks}
    symlinks removed ................... ${stat:rmsymlinks}
    verification failures .............. ${stat:check_failures}


notify-event {
    event statistics;
    module mailutils;

notify-event {
    event success;
    module mailutils;
    module-config {
        recipient user;
        message <<- EOT
           Subject: Upload of ${project} successful

           Upload of ${project} to ${url}/${dir} finished successfully.
           Files uploaded:


           The Project Submission Robot

For the sake of brevity, this example defines only two notify-event statements. More statements for others events can be added as needed.

Wydawca:   Section:   Chapter:FastBack: configuring   Up: notification   FastForward: wydawca.conf   Contents: Table of ContentsIndex: Concept Index

4.15.4 mod_logstat – statistics logging

The module mod_logstat logs the supplied message at the ‘statististics’ event.

The simplest configuration for this module is:

module logstat mod_logstat.so;

notify-event {
  event statistics;
  module logstat;

This will produce on the default logging channel the detailed statistics, as discussed in statistics.

There is no specific module-init statements. The module should be called from notify-event block on the ‘statistics’ event. The module’s module-config statement can contain the following statements:

mod_logstat config: statistics list

Configures what statistics items should be included in the output. See statistics, for a detailed discussion of list.

This statement is ignored if the message statement is present.

mod_logstat config: message text

Specifies the message to be logged. The text argument can contain references to statistic variables (see statistic variables).

If no message statement is present, the following default is assumed:

message <<EOT
errors: ${stat:errors}
warnings: ${stat:warnings}
bad signatures: ${stat:bad_signatures}
access violation attempts: ${stat:access_violations}
complete triplets: ${stat:complete_triplets}
incomplete triplets: ${stat:incomplete_triplets}
bad triplets: ${stat:bad_triplets}
expired triplets: ${stat:expired_triplets}
triplet successes: ${stat:triplet_success}
files uploaded: ${stat:uploads}
files archived: ${stat:archives}
symlinks created: ${stat:symlinks}
symlinks removed: ${stat:rmsymlinks}
check failures: ${stat:check_failures}

Wydawca:   Section:   Chapter:FastBack: configuring   Up: Top   FastForward: invocation   Contents: Table of ContentsIndex: Concept Index

5 Wydawca configuration file.

This chapter summarizes the configuration statements. For each statement, a reference to its detailed description is provided.

# Enable daemon mode.
# See daemon.
daemon arg:boolean;

# Start in foreground even in daemon mode.
# See foreground.
foreground arg:boolean;

# Set pid file name.
# See pidfile.
pidfile file:string;

# Run with UID and GID of this user.
# See user privileges.
user name:string;

# Retain these supplementary groups:
# See user privileges.
group arg:list of string;

# Listen on this address.
# See listen.
listen socket:sock-addr;

# Maximum number of simultaneous upload notification connections.
# See max-connections.
max-connections n;

# Idle timeout for an upload notification connection.
# See idle-timeout.
idle-timeout time:interval;

# Configure TCP wrappers.
# See tcp-wrapper.
tcp-wrapper {
  # Enable TCP wrapper access control. Default is ‘yes.
  enable arg:boolean;

  # Set daemon name for TCP wrapper lookups. Default is program name.
  daemon name:string;

  # Use file for positive client address access control.
  # (default: /etc/hosts.allow).
  allow-table file:string;

  # Use file for negative client address access control.
  # (default: /etc/hosts.deny).
  deny-table file:string;

  # Log host allows at this syslog priority.
  allow-syslog-priority prio:string;

  # Log host denies at this syslog priority.
  deny-syslog-priority prio:string;

# Load module
# See modules.
module name:string file:string;

# Initialize the loaded module
# See module-init.
module-init name {
  # One or more module-specific statements

# Load mailutils module
# See mod_mailutils.
module mailutils mod_mailutils.so;

# mod_mailutils initialization
module-init mailutils {
  # Set mailer URL.
  # See mailer.
  mailer url:string;

  # Set admin email address.
  # See admin-address.
  admin-address email:string;

  # Set sender email address.
  # See from-address.
  from-address email:string;

  # Send statistics report.
  # See statreports.
  mail-statistics {
    # Message text.
    message text:string;

    # Send mail if one or more of these items are set.
    statistics items:string;

    # Sign message with this key.
    gpg-sign key:string;

# Configure notification.
# See notification.
notify-event {
  # Event on which to notify.
  event ev-id:string;

  # Name of the module to invoke on event
  module modname:string;
  # Module-specific configuration data
  module-config {

  # Configuration for mod_mailutils
  # See mail-config.
  module-config {
    # Notify this recipient
    # See recipient.
    recipient who:string;

    # Sign message with this key
    # See gpg-sign.
    gpg-sign key:string;

    # Text of the notification or identifier of a defined message
    # template
    # See message.
    message text-or-id:string;

# Define file sweep time.
# See file-sweep-time.
file-sweep-time time:interval;

# Set tar invocation command line.
# See tar-program.
tar-program prog:string;

# Set umask.
# See umask.
umask mask:octal;

# Control implicit signature archivation.
# See archive-signatures.
archive-signatures arg:boolean;

# Schedule generation of statistic reports.
# See statistics.
stat-report-schedule time:crontab-time;

# Generate statistic reports if one or more of these items
# changed.  
# See statistics.
statistics items:string;

# Service names that request scanning all spools.
# See all-spools.
all-spools arg:list of string;

# GPG home directory.
# See gpg-homedir.
gpg-homedir arg:string;

# Define SQL database.
# See sql.
sql id:string {
  # Set the name of the configuration file to read.
  config-file name:string;
  # Set the name of the configuration file group to use.
  config-group name:string;
  # Set SQL server hostname or IP address.
  host host:string;

  # Set database name.
  database dbname:string;

  # Set SQL user name.
  user name:string;

  # Set SQL user password.
  password arg:string;

  # File name of the Certificate Authority (CA) certificate.
  ssl-ca file:string;

# Configure syslog logging.
# See syslog.
syslog {
  # Set syslog facility.
  facility name:string;

  # Tag syslog messages with this string.
  tag string:string;

  # Prefix each message with its priority.
  print-priority arg:boolean;

# Define message text.
# See templates.
define-message ident:string text:string;

# Create missing directories.
# See directory setup.
create-directories arg:boolean;

# Mode for created directories.
# See directory setup.
directory-mode mode:octal;

# Owner user and group for created directory.
# See directory setup.
directory-owner uid:string gid:string;

# Set up archivation.
# See archivation.
archive type:string {
  # Name of archive file or directory.
  name file-or-dir:string;

  # Define backup type.
  # See backup-methods.
  backup type:string;

  # Mode for the archive directory.
  # See directory-mode.
  directory-mode mode:octal;

  # Owner user and group for the archive directory.
  directory-owner uid:string gid:string;

# Define data dictionary.
# See dictionaries.
dictionary ident:string {
  # Dictionary type.
  type type:string;

  # Query template.
  query string:string;

  # Set dictionary parameters.
  params arg:list of string;

# Define distribution spool.
# See spool.
spool tag:string {
  # URL corresponding to this spool.
  url arg:string;

  # Aliases.
  alias arg:list of string;

  # Source directory.
  source dir:string;

  # Mode for the source directory.
  # See source-mode.
  # See directory setup.
  source-mode mode:octal;

  # Owner user and group for the source directory.
  # See source-owner.
  # See directory setup.
  source-owner uid:string gid:string;

  # Destination directory.
  destination dir:string;

  # Mode for the destination directory.
  # See destination-mode.
  # See directory setup.
  destination-mode mode:octal;

  # Owner user and group for the destination directory.
  # See destination-owner.
  # See directory setup.
  destination-owner uid:string gid:string;

  # Define file sweep time.
  file-sweep-time time:interval;

  # Define data dictionary.
  # See above.
  dictionary ident:string { … }
  # Set up archivation.
  archive type:string { … }

  # Configure notification.
  notify-event { … }

Wydawca:   Section:   Chapter:FastBack: wydawca.conf   Up: Top   FastForward: Reporting Bugs   Contents: Table of ContentsIndex: Concept Index

6 Wydawca invocation summary.

This chapter presents a short reference of all wydawca command line options. The entries are sorted alphabetically by their long option name. Where no long option exists, short option is used instead.

-c file

Use file instead of the default configuration file.

See The --config-file option.


Display a concise summary of the available configuration directives. This does not include statements specific for particular loadable modules. To display these, use the --module-help option (see –module-help).


Run in cron mode. Implies --syslog. See cron.

See The --syslog option.


Run in daemon mode. See daemon.


Set the debugging level to n. The argument is optional. If specified, it must follow the short option immediately, with no whitespace between them. When used with the long option, the equals sign must be used.

Without argument, increases the current debugging level by 1. For compatibility with previous version, -d options can be clustered. E.g. -ddd is equivalent to -d3.

See The --debug option.

-D name[=value]

Define the preprocessor symbol name as having value, or empty. See Preprocessor.


Dump configuration grammar traces. This is useful for debugging wydawca configuration file parser.


Dump lexical analyzer traces. This is useful for debugging wydawca configuration file parser.


Dry-run mode: do nothing, print almost everything. This option implies --debug=1 --stderr.

See The dry-run mode.


Dump the preprocessed configuration to stdout and exit. see Preprocessor.


Force start-up, even if running as root or if the PID file already exists.


Remain in the foreground. This is mostly for debugging wydawca.


Print a concise usage summary and exit.

-I dir

Add dir to include search path.

See #include. See Preprocessor.


Parse configuration file, report any errors on the standard error and exit with code 0, if the syntax is OK, and with code 1 otherwise.

See The --lint option.


Loads module file (see modules) and displays help about its configuration. If file is an absolute or relative pathname, it will be loaded as is. Otherwise, wydawca will search for module file in its default library load path (see library search path).


Disable preprocessor. see Preprocessor.


Use command instead of the default preprocessor. see Preprocessor.

-s name

Process only the spool with the given source name. This option may be given multiple times, to select several spools by their source names.

-S tag

Process only spool with the given tag. This option may be given multiple times, to select several spools by their tag names.


Log to the standard error.

See The --stderr option.


Log all diagnostics to syslog.

See The --syslog option.


Print the program version and exit.

Wydawca:   Section:   Chapter:FastBack: invocation   Up: Top   FastForward: Architecture   Contents: Table of ContentsIndex: Concept Index

7 How to Report a Bug

Email bug reports to bug-wydawca@gnu.org.ua.

As the purpose of bug reporting is to improve software, please be sure to include a detailed information when reporting a bug. The minimum information needed is:

Wydawca:   Section:   Chapter:FastBack: Reporting Bugs   Up: Top   FastForward: Copying This Manual   Contents: Table of ContentsIndex: Concept Index

Appendix A Architecture of the Wydawca

This appendix outlines the structure of the program. It serves as a short reminder for debugging the program.

A running wydawca process consists of at least four threads. Each upload is processed by its dedicated thread. Additional threads can be strarted to perform some specific tasks.

If the operating system permits, each thread is assigned a name. Apart from the main thread, names of each thread begin with uppercase letters WY plus underscore.

On a GNU/Linux system the name of a thread can be read from /proc/pid/task/tid/comm, where pid is the PID of the wydawca process and tid is the thread identifier.

The following table describes each thread:


The main thread. It starts all other threads and waits for signals. When it exits, all other threads are terminated as well.


The workhorse of the project. Listens on inotify descriptor and TCP socket for incoming notification events. This thread keeps a table of uploaded files, which is updated each time an inotify event is reported. Uploaded files are verified and ordered into triplets. Once a triplet is completed, a separate ‘WY_triplet’ thread is started in order to process it.

If an incoming connection appears on upload notification socket (see upload notification), a ‘WY_tcpmux’ thread is started to handle it.


Keeps track of registered triplets and removes expired ones.


This thread is responsible for statistic logging and notification.


This thread is started by if the legacy upload notification is enabled (see listen). It enforces idle timeout for all started upload notification threads (‘WY_tcpmux’ instances).


Serves a particular notification upload connection. The number of threads of this type is limited by the max-connections configuration file statement (see max-connections).


Processes a triplet. A separate thread of this type is started by ‘WY_listener’ for each valid triplet it detects.

Wydawca:   Section:   Chapter:FastBack: Architecture   Up: Architecture   FastForward: Copying This Manual   Contents: Table of ContentsIndex: Concept Index

Event timestamps in WY_stat

On GNU/Linux systems the events generated by the ‘WY_stat’ thread may appear to happen one second prior to their scheduled time. This happens if the software reporting the events uses time(2) instead of gettimeofday(2) for time reporting. The internal timekeeping mechanism of the linux kernel is designed so that the number of seconds returned by time may be one less than the tv_sec value after return from gettimeofday, if the two functions would be called the same instant10.

The two known cases are the legacy syslogd used by default on Slackware systems, and the Sendmail MTA.

Since the results returned by gettimeofday are more accurate, it was decided to leave this feature as it is, instead of installing workarounds of dubious nature just to satisfy older software.

Wydawca:   Section:   Chapter:FastBack: Architecture   Up: Top   FastForward: Concept Index   Contents: Table of ContentsIndex: Concept Index

Appendix B GNU Free Documentation License

Version 1.2, November 2002
Copyright © 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301, USA

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

    The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful document free in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

    This License is a kind of “copyleft”, which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software.

    We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.


    This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated herein. The “Document”, below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as “you”. You accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law.

    A “Modified Version” of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language.

    A “Secondary Section” is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document’s overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.

    The “Invariant Sections” are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.

    The “Cover Texts” are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.

    A “Transparent” copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a format whose specification is available to the general public, that is suitable for revising the document straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text. A copy that is not “Transparent” is called “Opaque”.

    Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for output purposes only.

    The “Title Page” means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, “Title Page” means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work’s title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

    A section “Entitled XYZ” means a named subunit of the Document whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, “Endorsements”, or “History”.) To “Preserve the Title” of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a section “Entitled XYZ” according to this definition.

    The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License.


    You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

    You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies.


    If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document’s license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

    If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.

    If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.

    It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.


    You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

    1. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
    2. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this requirement.
    3. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher.
    4. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
    5. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices.
    6. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
    7. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document’s license notice.
    8. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
    9. Preserve the section Entitled “History”, Preserve its Title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled “History” in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.
    10. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the “History” section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
    11. For any section Entitled “Acknowledgements” or “Dedications”, Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.
    12. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
    13. Delete any section Entitled “Endorsements”. Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version.
    14. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled “Endorsements” or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
    15. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

    If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version’s license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.

    You may add a section Entitled “Endorsements”, provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties—for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.

    You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.

    The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.


    You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.

    The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.

    In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled “History” in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled “History”; likewise combine any sections Entitled “Acknowledgements”, and any sections Entitled “Dedications”. You must delete all sections Entitled “Endorsements.”


    You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

    You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.


    A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an “aggregate” if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation’s users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

    If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document’s Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.


    Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.

    If a section in the Document is Entitled “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, or “History”, the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.


    You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.


    The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

    Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License “or any later version” applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.

B.1 ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:

  Copyright (C)  year  your name.
  Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
  or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
  with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
  Free Documentation License''.

If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the “with...Texts.” line with this:

    with the Invariant Sections being list their titles, with
    the Front-Cover Texts being list, and with the Back-Cover Texts
    being list.

If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.

Wydawca:   Section:   Chapter:FastBack: Copying This Manual   Up: Top     Contents: Table of ContentsIndex: Concept Index

Concept Index

This is a general index of all issues discussed in this manual

Jump to:   #   /  
A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W  
Index Entry  Section
#include: Pragmatic Comments
#include_once: Pragmatic Comments
#line: Pragmatic Comments
/etc/hosts.allow: tcp-wrapper
/etc/services: daemon
access-violations, statistics: statistics
admin: mail-config
admin-address: mod_mailutils
alias: spool
all, statistics: statistics
all-spools: daemon
allow-syslog-priority: tcp-wrapper
allow-table: tcp-wrapper
archivation methods: archivation
archivation, defined: archivation
archive: archivation
archive: archivation
archive: spool
archive-signatures: archivation
archives, statistics: statistics
authpriv, syslog facility: syslog
backup: archivation
bad-detached-signature: event notification
bad-directive-signature: event notification
bad-ownership: event notification
bad-signatures, statistics: statistics
bad-triplets, statistics: statistics
block statement: Statements
boolean value: Statements
builtin: dictionaries
builtin dictionary: builtin type
c, -c short option, described: starting
c, -c short option, summary: invocation
check-failure: event notification
check-script: verification
check-script: verification
check:diagn: mail-config
check:result: mail-config
command line options: invocation
comment: dictionaries
Comments in a configuration file: Comments
comments, pragmatic: Pragmatic Comments
complete-triplets, statistics: statistics
config-file: sql
config-file, --config-file option, described: starting
config-file, --config-file option, summary: invocation
config-group: sql
config-help, --config-help option, introduced: configuring
config-help, --config-help option, summary: invocation
configuration file statements: Statements
configuration statements, reference: wydawca.conf
create-directories: directory setup
cron mode: operation modes
cron, --cron option, described: starting
cron, --cron option, summary: invocation
cron, syslog facility: syslog
d, -d short option, described: starting
D, -D short option, introduced: Preprocessor
d, -d short option, summary: invocation
D, -D short option, summary: invocation
daemon: daemon
daemon: tcp-wrapper
daemon mode: operation modes
daemon, --daemon option, described: starting
daemon, --daemon option, summary: invocation
daemon, syslog facility: syslog
database: sql
database, MySQL: sql
database, SQL: sql
date: statreports
debug, --debug option, described: starting
debug, --debug option, summary: invocation
define, --define option, introduced: Preprocessor
define, --define option, summary: invocation
define-message: templates
defining source and distribution directories: spool
deny-syslog-priority: tcp-wrapper
deny-table: tcp-wrapper
destination: spool
destination directory: overview
destination-mode: spool
destination-owner: spool
dest_dir: dictionaries
dest_dir: mail-config
detached signature: Intro
detached signature: overview
detached signature: overview
dictionaries: dictionaries
dictionary: overview
dictionary: dictionaries
dictionary: spool
dir: dictionaries
dir: mail-config
directory, archivation: archivation
directory, destination: overview
directory, distribution: overview
directory, source: Intro
directory, source: overview
directory, upload: overview
directory-mode: directory setup
directory-mode: archivation
directory-owner: directory setup
directory-owner: archivation
distribution directory: overview
distribution directory, defining: spool
distribution spool: spool
distribution verification: verification
dry-run, --dry-run option, described: starting
dry-run, --dry-run option, summary: invocation
dump-grammar-trace, --dump-grammar-trace option, summary: invocation
dump-lex-trace, --dump-lex-trace option, summary: invocation
e, -e short option, described: starting
E, -E short option, described: Preprocessor
E, -E short option, introduced: configuring
E, -E short option, summary: invocation
e, -e short option, summary: invocation
email:admin: mail-config
email:owner: mail-config
email:user: mail-config
enable: tcp-wrapper
errors, statistics: statistics
escape sequence: Statements
event: event notification
existing, backup method: archivation
expansion of undefined variables: Statements
expired triplet: overview
expired-triplets, statistics: statistics
external: dictionaries
external dictionary: external type
facility: syslog
FDL, GNU Free Documentation License: Copying This Manual
file-sweep-time: general
file-sweep-time: spool
finish: event notification
force, --force option, summary: invocation
foreground: general
foreground, --foreground option, summary: invocation
from-address: mod_mailutils
ftp, syslog facility: syslog
gpg-homedir: general
gpg-sign: statreports
gpg-sign: mail-config
group: user privileges
h, -h short option, described: starting
h, -h short option, summary: invocation
help, --help option, described: starting
help, --help option, summary: invocation
here-document: Statements
host: sql
I, -I short option, introduced: Preprocessor
I, -I short option, summary: invocation
idle-timeout: daemon
implicit signature archivation: archivation
include-directory, --include-directory option, introduced: Preprocessor
include-directory, --include-directory option, summary: invocation
incomplete triplet: overview
incomplete-triplets, statistics: statistics
inotify: daemon
inotify: operation modes
inotify: spool
introduction: Intro
invocation: starting
invocation: invocation
lint, --lint option, described: starting
lint, --lint option, introduced: configuring
lint, --lint option, summary: invocation
list: Statements
listen: daemon
listing, triplet: mail-config
local0 through local7, syslog facilities: syslog
m4: Preprocessor
mail notification: mod_mailutils
mail, syslog facility: syslog
mail-statistics: statreports
mailer: mailer
mailer: mailer
mailer URL: mailer
max-connections: daemon
max-version: versions
message: mail-config
message: statreports
message: mail-config
message: mod_logstat
message template: templates
min-version: versions
module: modules
module: event notification
module-config: event notification
module-help, --module-help option, introduced: modules
module-help, --module-help option, summary: invocation
module-init: modules
module-load-path: modules
module-prepend-load-path: modules
multi-line comments: Comments
MySQL databases: sql
n, -n short option, described: starting
n, -n short option, summary: invocation
name: archivation
never, backup method: archivation
nil, backup method: archivation
no-preprocessor, --no-preprocessor option, defined: Preprocessor
no-preprocessor, --no-preprocessor option, introduced: configuring
no-preprocessor, --no-preprocessor option, summary: invocation
none, archivation: archivation
none, statistics: statistics
notification: notification
notification message template: templates
notify-event: spool
notify-event: event notification
numbered, backup method: archivation
operation: overview
operation mode: operation modes
overview: overview
owner: mail-config
params: dictionaries
password: sql
PGP: Intro
PGP: overview
PGP key: dictionaries
PGP signature: statistics
pidfile: daemon
pp-setup: Preprocessor
pragmatic comments: Pragmatic Comments
preprocessor: Preprocessor
preprocessor, --preprocessor option, defined: Preprocessor
preprocessor, --preprocessor option, summary: invocation
print-priority: syslog
project: dictionaries
project: mail-config
project-owner: dictionaries
project-owner: project-owner-sql
project-uploader: dictionaries
project-uploader-sql: project-uploader-sql
query: dictionaries
quoted string: Statements
read: mail-config
recipient: mail-config
release submission daemon: Intro
rmsymlinks, statistics: statistics
s, -s short option, summary: invocation
S, -S short option, summary: invocation
Savane: sql type
signature files, archivation: archivation
signature, detached: Intro
signature, detached: overview
simple statements: Statements
simple, backup method: archivation
single-line comments: Comments
source: spool
source directory: Intro
source directory: overview
source directory, defining: spool
source, --source option, summary: invocation
source-mode: spool
source-owner: spool
source_dir: dictionaries
source_dir: mail-config
spool: overview
spool: dictionaries
spool: spool
spool: mail-config
spool, --spool option, described: starting
spool, --spool option, summary: invocation
sql: dictionaries
sql: sql
SQL databases: sql
sql dictionary: sql type
ssl-ca: sql
stat-report-schedule: statistics
stat:access_violations: statreports
stat:archives: statreports
stat:bad_signatures: statreports
stat:bad_triplets: statreports
stat:check-failures: statreports
stat:complete_triplets: statreports
stat:errors: statreports
stat:expired_triplets: statreports
stat:incomplete_triplets: statreports
stat:rmsymlinks: statreports
stat:symlinks: statreports
stat:triplet_success: statreports
stat:uploads: statreports
stat:warnings: statreports
statement, block: Statements
statement, simple: Statements
statements, configuration file: Statements
statistics: event notification
statistics: statistics
statistics: statreports
statistics: statistics
statistics: mod_logstat
stderr, --stderr option, described: starting
stderr, --stderr option, summary: invocation
string, quoted: Statements
string, unquoted: Statements
success: event notification
symlinks, statistics: statistics
syslog: syslog
syslog priority, printing in diagnostics: syslog
syslog tag, configuring: syslog
syslog, --syslog option, described: starting
syslog, --syslog option, summary: invocation
syslog, configuration: syslog
t, -t short option, described: starting
t, -t short option, summary: invocation
t, backup method: archivation
tag: syslog
tar, archivation: archivation
tar-program: archivation
tcp-wrapper: tcp-wrapper
TCPMUX notification: operation modes
templates, notification messages: templates
Time Interval Specification: Statements
triplet listing: mail-config
triplet, expired: overview
triplet, incomplete: overview
triplet-success, statistics: statistics
triplet:dir: mail-config
triplet:dist: mail-config
triplet:dist: mail-config
triplet:ls:dir: mail-config
triplet:ls:full: mail-config
triplet:ls:sig: mail-config
triplet:ls:upload: mail-config
triplet:sig: mail-config
type: dictionaries
umask: general
undefined variable, expansion: Statements
upload directory: overview
upload site: Intro
uploads, statistics: statistics
url: dictionaries
url: spool
url: mail-config
URL, mailer: mailer
user: user privileges
user: dictionaries
user: sql
user: mail-config
user: mail-config
user:email: mail-config
user:name: mail-config
user:real_name: mail-config
v, -v short option, described: starting
V, -V short option, summary: invocation
variable expansion: Statements
variables: Statements
variables in admin notifications: statreports
verification: verification
version, --version option, described: starting
version, --version option, summary: invocation
version-control Emacs variable: archivation
warnings, statistics: statistics
WYDAWCA_DEST: verification
WYDAWCA_DIST_FILE: verification
WYDAWCA_SOURCE: verification
WYDAWCA_SPOOL: verification
WYDAWCA_URL: verification
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See Standalone directives.


See Standalone directives.


Standalone directives.


RFC 1078.


The user name requirement is retained for backward compatibility. In fact, it is not used, so that any word can be sent instead.


Support for IPv6 will be added in future versions.


See http://article.gmane.org/gmane.comp.sysutils.autotools.announce/131.


It is equivalent to:


Full here means an email address with eventual personal part


See https://stackoverflow.com/questions/22917318/time-and-gettimeofday-return-different-seconds, for details